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The Presentation of the Lord, Years A, B, & C,
February 2, Annually

Twenty-second digests for the congregation: Arrange with your liturgy committee to have these brief historical introductions read to the assembly before you do each reading.

Who should announce these before the first and second readings, and before the gospel acclamation? They're not Scripture, nor homiletic, so they shouldn't be delivered from the ambo. They're a modest teaching. So let the presider say them from the chair. Let the lector turn toward the presider and listen.
Print this page, cut it at the blue lines, and give the introduction paragraphs to the person who will speak them.


The Presentation of the Lord, Years A, B, & C,
February 2, Annually
Before the first reading:

At a time when God's people and their leaders were not living virtuously, the prophet Malachi criticised them for careless religious rituals, for cheating and for marriage to pagans. He predicts that the Lord will, like a craftsman melting gold and silver, "refine" the Levite priests of the temple.
After the psalm, before the second reading:

Jews who became Christians lost the comforts of their old religion, including its speculations about angels. The Letter to the Hebrews reminds these converts that Jesus replaces and vastly improves upon everything they have given up. Here the writer argues that Jesus is superior to angels and closer to us than angels could be.
Before the gospel acclamation:

The audience of Luke's gospel were pagan converts. They were happy to become Christians but puzzled that they had inherited a religion that started among the famously exclusive Jews. So Luke shows them two representatives of the Jewish heritage proclaiming how that tradition was destined to be transformed by Jesus.

To pay for use of the words above, please subtract an equal number of optional words from other places in the liturgy (click here for some suggestions).

First reading, Malachi 3:1-4 [Jerusalem Bible translation]

The Historical Situation: After Judah returned from its exile in Babylon, the people and their leaders did not quickly rise to great levels of virtue. An anonymous prophet, who took the name Malachi (pronounce it MAL uh ki, with a short a in the first syllable, and long i in the third; it's Hebrew for "my messenger"), upbraided them for several abuses, such as religious impiety, cheating and marriage to pagans. In these verses, his particular concern is the temple and its rituals. His prediction that the Lord will visit the temple connects the first reading with today's gospel. The "sons of Levi" are the hereditary clan of priests who have been neglecting their sacred duties.

Proclaiming It: Malachi was passionate, and his imagery is vivid: How will the Lord come to the temple? Suddenly. How will we work? Like the refiner's fire or the fuller's lye. (A fuller was a craftsman who cleansed and thickened cloth.) So bring out the vigor in these expressions. Also emphasize "to the temple" so that your listeners know the locus of the action.

Second Reading, Hebrews 2:14-18 [Jerusalem Bible translation]

The Historical Situation: This letter was for some Jews who had become Christian, and who were feeling nostalgic for some of the institutions of Judaism from which they were now cut off. The author's intent is to show them that they have in Jesus everything they used to have in Judaism, and more. So there are references to Jewish ideas and theological concepts that are strange to most of us today.

The Theological Background: For example, evidently the addressees had believed that angels played important mediating roles between God and the faithful. Rather than simply dismiss this idea, the author spends chapters 1 and 2 of Hebrews explaining how Jesus, as the very son of God, is superior to the angels. To explain why Jesus had to suffer (and angels do not suffer), he says in chapter 2, verse 9, that Jesus was made for a little while lower than the angels, that he might "taste death" for the sake of all people.

Then he says that this share in our suffering made our leader in salvation (Jesus) perfect. And the author implies something he'll develop later, that Jesus replaces the priests of old Judaism, just like he does the angels. Without using the word "priest" yet, but rather using the verb "consecrate" (the work specific to priests), he says "those consecrated" (that is, us) and the one consecrating (Jesus) have the same Father. So we're Jesus' brothers and sisters, and all children of God.

It's not the tight Aristotelian logic we like to see on our newspapers' editorial pages, but a different style of argumentation that made much sense its original audience. (And it's a style not completely out of date even today. I remember seeing this kind of argumentation in the books of the twentieth-century American Jewish novelist Chaim Potok, The Chosen and The Promise. They're about brilliant contemporary rabbinical students and their struggles with the ideas of the dominant culture. Recommended reading!)

In any case, all this sets things up for the small paragraph forming our reading.

Proclaiming It: Whew! There's a lot packed into a few dozen words. Before such a smörgåsbord of ideas, and absent any compelling link to the first reading or gospel, I'd choose one notion and try to emphasize it. My choice? Jesus' solidarity with us. "Jesus likewise shared in them [human blood and flesh]," "he had to become like his brothers and sisters"


A Homily Starter, based on one or more of the day's readings

The readings share this theme: an unexpected visit by the Lord challenges comfortable ritual practices:

The question for our congregation: How would a sudden, unexpected visit from the Lord challenge the practices in which we have grown comfortable? In religious life, it is certainly easy to become complacent with arrangements and practices once established. This applies at the congregational level to our Sunday rituals, to our congregational governance, and to the presence we exercise in our larger communities. If the Lord came today for an unannounced inspection, would we pass muster in the area of vigorous worship, parish and diocesan self-administration, zealous mission and witness to the rest of the world?

The question for each individual: Are we as faithful when life presents us new challenges as we are habitual when things go along steadily.

Just as the priest Jesus needed to experience temptation, our devotions and rituals need to be grounded in life's messy and ambiguous experiences.

The priests in question today are all of us, not just the ordained ministers, of course.

In the 1960's and '70's, Catholics saw the Second Vatican Council as an unexpected visit by the Spirit of the Lord, bent on reforming practices with which the church had become comfortable and complacent. Sensing what might be going on, some historians and liturgists predicted that a renewed liturgy of baptism and of the Eucharist would so fulfill the spiritual needs of God's people that other devotional practices would seem less necessary, and no longer propagate themselves. The short history since then has not borne out this prediction, at least not in this author's milieu. This may be because the prediction was just wrong. It could also be because the renewal of the liturgy has been allowed to stop prematurely.


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Several other commentaries on these passages. All are thoughtful, all quite readable, from the scholarly to the popular.
Links may be incomplete more than a few weeks before the "due date."
Saint Louis University's excellent Sunday liturgy site.
SLU may cover this feast only if it falls on a Sunday.
Bible Study pages of Saint Charles Borromeo Catholic Church, Picayune, Mississippi
Lutheran pastor and college teacher Dan Nelson's notes for a study group,
from February 2, 2003.
Father Roger Karban's column from 2003, the smartest three paragraphs about sacrifice that you may ever read.

Karban's 2014 column on these readings

The Lectionary selections in the frame at the left, if any, are there for your convenience. The publishers of the page in that frame have no connection, except for membership in the one Body of Christ, with the publisher of this page. Likewise the publishers of the pages on the links above.


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Last modified: January 24, 2014